Definitive List Of Ingredients Containing Gluten from the

This information is excerpted from, a website dedicated to teaching gluten-sensitive individuals simple, savvy and empowering steps to get healthy.


Since gluten-free labeling is only for food and supplements, knowing at least some of the hidden gluten ingredients are helpful for spotting gluten hidden in body care products, makeup, pet care products, and more. Small exposures perpetuate a cycle of inflammation that prevents you from really feeling like yourself again.

Additionally, gluten has one important superpower that most other foods do not — it causes leaky gut in everyone no matter whether you’re celiac, you’re gluten sensitive, or you have no reaction at all to gluten. A 2015 study looking at the effects of gluten on all three groups by a team including Dr. Alessio Fasano demonstrated that gluten spares no one. Leaky gut (or more the more medically appropriate term “gut permeability”) is a significant factor for those who react to gluten. It’s believed to be part of the mechanism behind triggering autoimmunity in the Functional Medicine world and is responsible for increasing the number of sensitivities you have to other foods.

When Gluten Free is Not Really Gluten Free

A study in 2014 found that 20% of gluten-free products tested for gluten were actually not gluten-free! They contained over equal to or above the 20ppm threshold that’s legal in the US. And while you can scour ingredient lists, still not feeling better may suggest that you’re still being exposed to gluten and preventing your body from healing.

The bottom line is that you MUST learn to read food labels so as to avoid hidden gluten. Fixating on ingredient lists isn’t full-proof… at all. Please know that this list is not the end-all-be-all of hidden gluten ingredients in food. Understanding gluten-free labeling is critical to mastering a gluten-free diet. No list or even mobile app can replace knowing what to look for.

Abyssinian hard (wheat Triticum durum)
Amp-isostearoyl hydrolyzed
Barley grass (may contain seeds)*
Barley hordeum vulgare
Barley malt
Barley malt beer
Barley malt extract
Barley malt flavoring
Bleached flour
Blue cheese (made with bread)
Bread crumbs* (including Panko)
Bread flour
Brewer’s yeast
Brown flour
Brown rice syrup*
Bulgur (bulgar wheat/nuts)
Bulgur wheat
Club wheat (Triticum aestivum subspecies compactum)
Common wheat (Triticum aestivum)
Disodium wheat germamido peg-2 sulfosuccinate
Durum wheat (Triticum durum)
Edible starch
Einkorn (Triticum monococcum)
Emmer (Triticum dicoccon)
Farina graham
Flour or Enriched flour (normally this is wheat)
Fu (dried wheat gluten)
Graham flour
Grain-based vinegar
Granary flour
Hing (spice)
Hydrolyzed wheat gluten
Hydrolyzed wheat protein
Hydrolyzed wheat protein pg-propyl silanetriol
Malt extract
Malt flavoring
Malt syrup
Malt vinegar
Matzo semolina
Oat Bran*
Oat Flour*
Oriental wheat (Triticum turanicum)
Pasta (includes whole wheat, enriched, orzo, macaroni)
Pearl barley
Persian wheat (Triticum carthlicum)
Poulard wheat (Triticum turgidum)
Polish wheat (Triticum polonicum)
Quick Oats*
Rice malt (if barley or koji are used)
Rye flour
Secale cereal
Semolina triticum
Shot wheat (Triticum aestivum)
Small spelt
Soy Sauce*
Sprouted wheat or barley
Stearyldimoniumhydroxypropyl hydrolyzed wheat protein
Steel Cut Oats*
Strong flour
Suet in packets
Tempeh Teriyaki sauce*
Textured vegetable protein (TYP)
Timopheevi wheat (Triticum timopheevii)
Triticale (x triticosecale)
Triticum vulgare (wheat) flour lipids
Triticum vulgare (wheat) germ extract
Triticum vulgare (wheat) germ oil
Udon (wheat noodles)
Unbleached flour
Vanilla extract*
Vanilla flavoring*
Vavilovi wheat (Triticum aestivum)
Vegetable starch
Vital Gluten
Wheat berries
Wheat germ oil
Wheat germ extract
Wheat grass (may contain seeds)*
Wheat nuts
Wheat protein
Wheat starch*
Whole-meal flour
Wild einkorn (Triticum boeotictim)
Wild emmer (Triticum dicoccoides)

(NOTE- Items marked with an asterisk (*) mean that they may be gluten-free depending on ingredients used as well as a variety of other factors that include a company testing their products to comply with gluten-free labeling.)

You can click here to read the full article and explore a wealth of information on the Gluten Free School website.

Mice fed more fiber have less severe food allergies

The development of food allergies in mice can be linked to what their gut bacteria are being fed, reports a study published June 21 in Cell Reports. Rodents that received a diet with average calories, sugar, and fiber content from birth were shown to have more severe peanut allergies than those that received a high-fiber diet. The researchers show that gut bacteria release a specific fatty acid in response to fiber intake, which eventually impacts allergic responses via changes to the immune system.

“We felt that the increased incidence of food allergies in the past ten years had to relate back to our diet and our own microbiome rather than a lack of exposure to environmental microbes–the so-called ‘Hygiene Hypothesis’,” says Laurence Macia, co-senior author on the study with Charles Mackay, both immunologists at Monash University in Australia. “Most researchers in this field look at excess fat as the problem–we were one of the first looking specifically at fiber deficiency in the gut.”

Gut bacteria are known to break down dietary fiber into their byproducts–primarily short-chain fatty acids. Macia and Mackay take this a step forward and show that these fatty acids support the immune system by binding onto specific receptors on T regulatory cells–immune cells known to suppress the immune response. This binding promotes a cascade of events that regulate inflammation in the gut–something that can be out of flux during an allergic reaction to food.

In the study, mice that were bred to have an artificially-induced peanut allergy were fed a high-fiber diet to produce a healthy population of gut bacteria. The bacteria were then given to a group of “germ-free” mice that had no gut microbes of their own. Despite not having consumed any fiber themselves, this second group of mice was protected against allergy, showing a less severe response when exposed to peanuts. In short, their microbiota was “reshaped” by having this transplant, says Mackay, adding that these mice clearly evolved mechanisms for responding to fiber and its byproducts. “It’s almost an essential component of their nutritional health,” he says.

“My theory is that the beneficial bacteria that predominate under consumption of fiber promotes the development of regulatory T cells, which ensures the bacteria have a healthy, anti-inflammatory system to thrive in,” says Macia. “So it’s a win-win for everybody.”

This anti-inflammatory effect was even seen with an artificial administration of these fatty acid byproducts. When the researchers gave groups of allergy-induced mice a water supply that was enriched with short-chain fatty acids for three weeks prior to exposure to peanuts, the mice had a reduced allergic response, even in the absence of a “protected” microbiota.

Both researchers expressed cautious optimism that their results can be effective in humans, and further preclinical trials would be required before studying the fiber-allergy relationship in people. “Right now, we need to identify what form of fiber to give,” says Macia. “That’s the main limitation at this stage.”

“It’s likely that compared to our ancestors, we’re eating unbelievable amounts of fat and sugar, and just not enough fiber” says Mackay, “And these findings may be telling us that we need that high-fiber intake, not just to prevent food allergy, but possibly other inflammatory conditions as well.”

Original Story:

Journal Reference:

  1. Tan et al. Dietary fiber and bacterial SCFA enhance oral tolerance and protect against food allergy through diverse cellular pathways. Cell Reports, 2016 DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2016.05.047

Food’s transit time through body is a key factor in digestive health

The time it takes for ingested food to travel through the human gut – also called transit time – affects the amount of harmful degradation products produced along the way. This means that transit time is a key factor in a healthy digestive system. This is the finding of a study from the National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, which has been published in the renowned journal Nature Microbiology.

Food has to travel through eight meters of intestine from the time it enters the mouth of an adult person until it comes out the other end. Recent research has focused mainly on the influence of the bacterial composition of the gut on the health of people’s digestive system.

Taking this a step further, Postdoc Henrik Munch Roager from the National Food Institute has studied how food’s transit time through the colon affects gut bacteria’s role in the activity and health of the digestive system by measuring the products of bacterial activity, which end up in urine.

The effect of food’s transit time

Intestinal bacteria prefer to digest dietary carbohydrates, but when these are depleted, the bacteria start to break down other nutrients such as proteins. Researchers have previously observed correlations between some of the bacterial protein degradation products that are produced in the colon and the development of various diseases including colorectal cancer, chronic renal disease and autism.

“In short, our study shows that the longer food takes to pass through the colon, the more harmful bacterial degradation products are produced. Conversely, when the transit time is shorter, we find a higher amount of the substances that are produced when the colon renews its inner surface, which may be a sign of a healthier intestinal wall,” Henrik’s supervisor and professor at the National Food Institute, Tine Rask Licht, explains.

It is commonly thought that a very diverse bacterial population in the gut is most healthy, however both the study from the National Food Institute and other brand news studies show that bacterial richness in stool is also often associated with a long transit time.

”We believe that a rich bacterial composition in the gut is not necessarily synonymous with a healthy digestive system, if it is an indication that food takes a long time to travel through the colon,” Tine Rask Licht says.

Better understanding of constipation as a risk factor

The study shows that transit time is a key factor in the activity of the intestinal bacteria and this emphasizes the importance of preventing constipation, which may have an impact on health. This is highly relevant in Denmark where up to as much as 20% of the population suffers from constipation from time to time.

The National Food Institute’s findings can help researchers better understand diseases where constipation is considered a risk factor, such as colorectal cancer and Parkinson’s disease as well as afflictions where constipation often occurs such as ADHD and autism.

Influencing food’s transit time

Tine Rask Licht emphasizes that people’s dietary habits can influence transit time:

”You can help food pass through the colon by eating a diet rich in fibre and drinking plenty of water. It may also be worth trying to limit the intake of for example meat, which slows down the transit time and provides the gut bacteria with lots of protein to digest. Physical activity can also reduce the time it takes for food to travel through the colon.”

Original Story:

Journal Reference:

  1. Henrik M. Roager, Lea B. S. Hansen, Martin I. Bahl, Henrik L. Frandsen, Vera Carvalho, Rikke J. Gøbel, Marlene D. Dalgaard, Damian R. Plichta, Morten H. Sparholt, Henrik Vestergaard, Torben Hansen, Thomas Sicheritz-Pontén, H. Bjørn Nielsen, Oluf Pedersen, Lotte Lauritzen, Mette Kristensen, Ramneek Gupta, Tine R. Licht. Colonic transit time is related to bacterial metabolism and mucosal turnover in the gut.Nature Microbiology, 2016; 1: 16093 DOI: 10.1038/nmicrobiol.2016.93